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This comprehensive presentation challenges some of the myths surrounding the role of literacy in the teaching and learning of
languages. It also discusses Literacy in the 21st Century, the Languages and Literacy Partnership, and what to consider when
developing a Literacy approach to Learning Languages. A range of literacy and thinking strategies are identified in the
presentation that can be used and differentiated across curriculum levels and languages. Open this file in Adobe Reader.



These additional resources have been adapted to support the presentation. Please feel free to use and adapt these to suit your
programmes but do ensure that original sources are acknowledged. You are encouraged to contribute resources in other
developed from these resources and from the presentation which will be included on this page.







Literacy_and_Learning_Languages_Brochure_Cover
NZALT produced this brochure to support Learning Languages teachers in their teaching and learning programmes. Copies
are available to schools from NZALT's Regional Officers.

wiki_three_levels
The Three-Level Guide is a reading strategy used to develop comprehension skills. This resource was shared as a discussion
document at Learning Languages clusters in Auckland and Northland in 2011. If you have examples of Three-Level Guides in
target languages you are encouraged to contribute resources which will be included on this page.

interacting
Text Types and Different Situations - This resource was co-constructed by Learning Languages teachers across Auckland
and Northland who participated in workshops and clusters in 2011. It provides useful ideas for planning writing and
interaction tasks.

Literacy logo wiki
Making Literacy Explicit in Learning Languages Tool


This resource has been developed to support middle leaders in Learning Languages to build on their use and interpretation of assessment data to develop relevant pedagogical knowledge to inform the literacy focus of their programmes. A range of explicit literacy strategies that will support reading and writing in the second language classroom have been identified that will support teachers to be responsive to student learning needs, and to increase the levels of achievement for students undertaking achievement standards with high literacy demands in this learning area. These include the aligned .5 writing portfolio, and the external comprehension standards.


These strategies should be integrated into Learning Languages programmes, using appropriate second language contexts, and can also form the basis for writing portfolio tasks. In some cases, difficult skills will need to be taught directly supported by opportunities for continuous practice and corrective feedback. Middle leaders in Learning Languages can use this resource to shift their programmes from an exclusively content focused approach where the focus is entirely on language knowledge and its assessment, to incorporate a literacy approach that supports the development of students' strategic competence where the focus is on both content and skills.
The following resources and strategies support the Making Literacy Explicit in Learning Languages Tool which is now available in its draft form here on the wiki.


3 Level Guide (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.91)

Here is a French text accompanied by model questions developed using the 3 Level Guide and the SOLO taxonomy. Many
thanks to Pam Mabin at St Cuthbert's College for sharing this resource she developed at a recent workshop.


Reciprocal Reading (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.74)



Co-operative Reading Square (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.121)


Semantic Clines (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.41)


Clustering (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.38)
http://literacyandnumeracyforadults.com/The-Learning-Progressions/Literacy/Read-with-Understanding/Activities-table/Clustering

Pair Definitions
http://literacyandnumeracyforadults.com/The-Learning-Progressions/Literacy/Read-with-Understanding/Activities-table/Pair-definitions

Graphic Organisers (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.112)

An interactive graphic organiser tool can be accessed online at:
http://interactives.mped.org/view_interactive.aspx?id=127&title=

A range of useful interactive graphic organisers and literacy strategies can be accessed here:
http://www.vrml.k12.la.us/graphorgan/

http://freeology.com/graphicorgs/

Hamburger Graphic Organiser - Paragraph Writing




KWLH (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.161)



Guess the Word
This strategy supports students to tackle specific vocabulary and assists with assessing the prior knowledge of students in relation
to a particular topic and assess the growth in students' vocabulary. It also helps students to guess and define key words in a text.
(Adapted from Top Tools for Literacy and Learning by David Whitehead, Pearson Eduaction, 2001).
http://literacy-english-esol.wikispaces.com/Developing+Literacy+Across+the+Curriculum


Double Entry Journals
In this strategy, students take notes on their reading in two columns with a line drawn vertically down the middle of each page.
In one column, they summarise important ideas from the text. In the other, they write their own thoughts and responses -
questions, confusions, personal reactions, or reflections on what the information means.


QAR - Question - Answer Relationships
This strategy develops students' skills in the use of textual evidence to substantiate textual claims, and to draw conclusions and
make inferences based on explicit and implied information.

Screen Shot 2013-10-04 at 2.33.15 PM.png



http://www.greece.k12.ny.us/academics.cfm?subpage=947


What's the big idea?
This strategy supports students when working with texts to locate key words, phrases and information, to note-take, to determine
the importance of information and ideas contained within the text, and to summarise. It is most successful when it is introduced
to students as a whole class activity. As students develop in their proficiency in summarising texts, they can then undertake the
task in smaller groups or independently.

To read more about this strategy (p. 124) and access a BLM which can be adapted for us in a second language classroom, refer
to: Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.

One sentence summary frames
This is another strategy that provides a simple structure to support students to summarise different types of texts.

To read more about this strategy (p. 124) and access a BLM which can be adapted for us in a second language classroom, refer
to: Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.

Beginning, middle and end flipcharts
This strategy supports students in summarising texts and provides an effective interactive wall display when completed.

To read more about this strategy (p. 140) and access a BLM which can be adapted for us in a second language classroom, refer
to: Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.

Fishbone Diagram
The fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or
contribute to those effects. Because of the function of the fishbone diagram, it may be referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram.
Teachers can modify this diagram to incorporate a different de Bono thinking hat at the end of each stem to direct students'
thinking in problem-based learning.
Literacy Fishbone Diagram Template.jpg


Trash or Treasure (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.106)



Comparing Texts (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.109)


Jigsaw Reading (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.122)


Pam Mabin, HOF Languages, St Cuthberts College has adapted a jigsaw activity to use with her students to support the
development of their reading comprehension skills. Here are the templates that Pam developed and used.



Literacy jigsaw pieces template.jpg


Literacy jigsaw with text template.png


Inference Jigsaw


To read more about this strategy (p. 103) refer to:
Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.


Reading Behind the Lines (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.107)
http://englishonline.tki.org.nz/English-Online/Student-needs/English-in-the-NZC/Enhancing-the-English-Curriculum/Level-6-Listening-reading-and-viewing/Recognises-that-there

http://englishonline.tki.org.nz/English-Online/Student-needs/English-in-the-NZC/Enhancing-the-English-Curriculum/Level-8-Listening-reading-and-viewing/Multiple-readings


Distinguishing between Fact and Fiction (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.109)




Hot-seat Character Interview
This strategy is excellent when used to review what has been learned. It can be used to support the writing of either a narrative
or a factual text.


To read more about this strategy (p. 71) refer to:
Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.

T Chart
This strategy supports students to analyse and evaluate what they know by adopting different perspectives. They can be used as
note-taking frameworks as learners read, listen to, or view texts. A simple interactive online T-Chart is available here:
http://www.vrml.k12.la.us/graphorgan/tchart/tchart1/tchart.asp

In Top Tools for Literacy and Thinking David Whitehead has provided examples of simple, intermediate, and complex T-Charts
which can be used at different levels of a second language programme to align to students' levels of language knowledge.
Reference: Whitehead, D. (2009). Top Tools for Literacy and Thinking: A Developmental Approach. Auckland: Pearson.

Character Inference Chart


To read more about the Character Inference Chart strategy (p. 106) refer to:
Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.

This strategy helps students examine the main characters in a story and identify the characteristics, e.g., physical appearance,
behavior and feelings. As the character weave is being completed, students may verify their notions by re-examining the events
in the story. This activity should first be modeled by the teacher as a whole group activity.

Once students are familiar with the process, they can do character weaves individually or in cooperative groups.
1. After a story has been read, the teacher presents a blank story map to the students. Under the character column, the class
helps the teacher list the characters from the story.
2. The students discuss the traits of each character and the teacher lists them in the appropriate boxes. If there is any
disagreement as to what is to be written down, the students re-examine the text to verify their statements.
3. Completed character weaves can be used to compare and contrast the behavior of specific characters throughout the story.
To see how a character weave and other literacy strategies can be used in a second languag eprogramme go to this German
teacher's website: https://www.msu.edu/user/lambjen3/TE301.html#CharacterWeave

Sociograms
This strategy helps learners explain and describe interactions and relationships between people and characters. These tools
engage learners in caring and critical forms of generic thinking, and evaluating forms of taxonomic thinking. They are linked to
the use of recounts, narrative, description, and explanation texts.
Screen shot 2012-10-09 at 8.43.17 AM.png
In Top Tools for Literacy and Thinking David Whitehead has provided examples of simple, intermediate, and complex Sociograms
and models of writing outcomes which can be used at different levels of a second language programme to align to students' levels
of language knowledge. Reference: Whitehead, D. (2009). Top Tools for Literacy and Thinking: A Developmental Approach.
Auckland: Pearson.

Stop and Think Cards


Build Bridges to Meaning


Analogy Graphic Organiser

The analogy graphic organizer is extremely helpful in aiding students with a visual representation of an analogy. It helps students
organize the similarities and differences into more manageable categories and ultimately draw conclusions on the unfamiliar topic.
To learn m ore about how this could work in a second language classroom go to the link below to see an example of how the
analogy graphic organizer can be used to demonstrate a grammar analysis between English and German word orders when using
conjunctions.https://www.msu.edu/user/lambjen3/TE301.html#AnalogyGraphicOrganizer

Dictogloss



Identify Key Words in a passage (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.115 and Skimming and Scanning
p.66)





Word Maps (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.33)




Identify Key Words in a passage (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.36)


Collocations

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/articles/collocation-advanced-levels-2-classroom-activities



Concept Circles (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.44)
http://esolonline.tki.org.nz/ESOL-Online/Teacher-needs/Pedagogy-New/ESOL-teaching-strategies/Oral-language/Teaching-approaches-and-strategies/Thinking/Concept-circles
http://literacyandnumeracyforadults.com/The-Learning-Progressions/Literacy/Read-with-Understanding/Activities-table/Concept-circles


Picture Dictation (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.48)
http://englishonline.tki.org.nz/English-Online/Teacher-needs/Teaching-Learning-sequences/New-English-Online-units/English-Units-Level-5/Earth-under-pressure/Picture-dictation

This tool is best used to provide an overview or a summary of a topic. It ensures that students use all of their their language acquisition skills and prepares students to deal with new and/or difficult text. Reference: Cubitt, S., Irvine, R., Dow, A. (1999). Top Tools for Social Science Teachers. Auckland: Longman.


Quickwriting (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.111)
http://esolonline.tki.org.nz/ESOL-Online/Teacher-needs/Pedagogy-New/ESOL-teaching-strategies/Oral-language/Teaching-approaches-and-strategies/Writing/Quick-writing

http://literacyonline.tki.org.nz/Literacy-Online/Secondary-Literacy/Teacher-needs/Pedagogy/Literacy-in-Secondary-School-Contexts/Module-2-Subject-area-literacy-for-students-in-years-9-13/Part-D/Quickwrites


Question Dice (see also Effective Literacy Strategies in Years 9 to 13 p.96)


Text Clues
This is a strategy that explicitly teachers students how to retell a story. It can be used at all levels of language acquisition and
differentiated in terms of output and complexity.

To read more about the the Text Clues strategy (p. 133) refer to:
Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson.

Bus Stop
This strategy activates prior knowledge and provides a picture of what language and knowledge students' may already have on a
topic. It can also be used at the end of a unit to check students' understanding and language acquisition.
  • Activities or questions are written on large sheets of paper, numbered and placed around the classroom.
  • Students work in groups of three. Each group is given a number. The role of recorder is rotated around group. One member
should be chosen to be the reporter at the end of the exercise. * Groups spend 3-4 minutes on each bus stop activity, recording their ideas or responses to the questions. The teacher calls
"Stop" and students move to the next activity. * When all groups have completed all the activities, the ideas and responses are shared and discussed with the class.

To read more about the the Bus Stop strategy (p. 39) refer to:
Cameron, S. (2009). Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies; A Practical Classroom Guide. Auckland: Pearson

Vocabulary Squares




Summary Star

A Summary Star is a simple tool that will allow students to focus on the story elements as they summarize the text. They are asked to rename the story in one word,
tell how it made them feel, and describe the setting, problem, and solution. This graphic organiser can also be used to teach grammar. Usually the renaming of the story
will feature a noun. The descripion of how they feel about the story will consist of adjectives and the setting will probably be a prepositional phrase. The problem and solution
will be stated in complete sentences.

Dot and Jot - Note Taking
This strategy allows students to develop their ability to make short and concise notes. Note-taking is a vaulable skill and
encourages students to record ideas in their own words. It is also important to discuss with students what 'infer' means.
Often students expect all information to be written in the text and to develop deeper thinking skills they need to develop the ability
to infer or read between the lines. Students may need considerable assistance with this. It is also appropriate to start the task by
modelling to the students what is expected - as a shared reading task. Students can then go on to complete the task indiividually.

Students read or listen to the text and record their notes on a Dot and Jot chart. Go over their notes with them. Did students
infer different things from the text? Do misunderstandings occur because of intercultural perspectives?

Use this tenmplate to adapt to your own tasks:

second language writing logo
**Using Writing-to-Learn Activities in the Foreign Language Classroom**

Video camera
Literacy Strategies to Develop Students' Understanding when using Video



celebrate poetry in a foreign language
The Beauty of using Poetry in the Languages Classroom by Lesley Parris, Regional Facilitator, Learning Languages


**Using Writing-to-Learn Activities in the Classroom**


Torild Homstad & Helga Thorson

**Literature in the English Language Classroom** **- Poetry**


Borja J. Ojeda Pinar and Marina Torralbo Jover

**Oral Poetry in the Foreign Language Classroom**


Catharine Mason

POETRY IN ACTION: Language Arts Production and Assessment


Marianne Manousselis Musurakis and Anastasia-Louise Pelekanou

Using poetry with mixed ability language classes
Brian Tomlinson

Writing poetry is a creative way to become versed in a language
http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6291318


Get students well versed from the start
http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=2206685


Even beginners can appreciate simple, beautiful verse
http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6278641


Write Poetry in a Foreign Language
http://suite101.com/article/poetry-in-foreign-language-classes-a44904


How To Rap - Writing Structure - I'm the Multi-Platinum selling Rap Artist "Mayz" from the rap group "Twista And The Speedknot Mobstaz"
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s9I3fRouwqE&feature=fvwrel


LibriVox volunteers record chapters of books in the public domain and release the audio files back onto the net. There is a multilingual poetry collection.

French
Le Lac by Lamartine
http://ia600201.us.archive.org/19/items/multilingual_poetry_collection_001_librivox/french_le_lac_lamartine_ezwa_64kb.mp3


German
Der Erlkoenig by Goethe
http://ia600201.us.archive.org/19/items/multilingual_poetry_collection_001_librivox/german_erlkoenig_goethe_robu.mp3


Chinese
Deng Guan Que Lou by Wang Zhihuan
http://ia600309.us.archive.org/8/items/multilingual_poetry_collection_004_librivox/chinese_dengguanquelou_wang_jz_64kb.mp3


Spanish
Rima IV by Gustavo Adolfo Becquer
http://ia600309.us.archive.org/34/items/multilingual_poetry_collection_005_librivox/spanish_rimaiv_becquer_ch_64kb.mp3


Nicolás Gullén, from Cuba. La Muralla, he composed with some exercises and activities to be done inclass.
Gloria Fuertes, from Spain: http://www.gloriafuertes.org/


Japanese
A famous poet http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kenji_Miyazawa


There is a museum dedicated to Kenji Miyazawa
'Ame ni mo makezu' poem- not gonna give in to the rain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ame_ni_mo_Makezu


A very famous haiku about a frog http://www.bopsecrets.org/gateway/passages/basho-frog.htm


A very famous song – Ue o muite (inappropriately labeled the Sukiyaki song) - lovely lyrics… sung by Sakamoto Kyuu
A Literacy Journey in Second Language Learning Contexts Image.png
Is diary writing an effective writing strategy to improve the confidence and fluency of L2 writers ?
The impetus for this research was the informal observation of the levels of student achievement in L2 writing at the end of Year 10 classes. The results specifically highlighted student weakness in the independent production and construction of L2. It was also hard to ignore student attitude. L2 students
lacked an apparent confidence in their own ability to write with spontaneity. In response, diary writing
was identified as a communicative open-ended writing task that could be regularly and easily facilitated into the Year 10 L2 learning programme.

This presentation (and accompanying notes) was one of the sessions at the 2013 TPDL Conference.

Recommended Readings:
Prof Reading Read_talk_practice.jpg

Pasifika students: teachers and parents voice their perceptions of what provides supports and barriers to Pasifika students’ achievement in literacy and learning

The changing ethnic population of schools in New Zealand challenges educators to respond proactively in reviewing how students from minority groups develop effective literacy and learning skills. Pasifika students’ achievement levels in literacy, particularly reading and writing literacy, has been an area of national focus for the Ministry of Education, teachers, teacher educators and the Pasifika community. For many students from a minority ethnic group, the interpretation of texts from a different culture provides challenges for teachers that require mediation in the construction of meaning. The particular aim of this study was to enhance identification and understanding of pedagogical practices and family/community factors which influence literacy learning outcomes for Pasifika students. The research found that Pasifika students’ literacy learning, and overall learning, was more likely to be enhanced when Pasifika values, language identities and cultural knowledge were made an implicit part of teaching and learning practices.

http://myportfolio.school.nz/artefact/file/download.php?file=468667&view=92809

Developing Reading Comprehension Questions

This article presents a detailed picture of six types of comprehension and five forms of questions that can be used to help students become interactive readers. The taxonomies of the types of comprehension and the forms of questions may also be used as a checklist for language teachers as well as materials developers. Teachers can use the taxonomies to make their own comprehension questions for texts that their students read to help them understand better what they read. In addition, they can be used to analyse instructional materials and to develop materials to ensure that the various forms of questions are used to help students respond to a variety of types of comprehension.

http://nflrc.hawaii.edu/rfl/april2005/day/day.html